№1 (11) 2021

Journal «The Complex Systems»

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Basic researches

Lishchuk V. A., Gazizova D. Sh. 3-12

The COVID-19 virus has claimed thousands of lives and created a global economic and social crisis.

The aim of the paper is to draw attention to the control of virus-human interactions. The following objectives are formulated. 1. To suppress (minimise) the virus activity in a human body. 2. To prevent (minimise) viral spreading while maximising economic growth. 3. Use of consciousness (dynamic stereotypes) to build protective skills against viruses, to enhance immunity and to use viruses for human benefit. 4. Statement of the problem on coexistence of a virus (biosphere) and a human. Analysis of these tasks made it possible to formulate possible solutions and to discuss implementation mechanisms: acquired and inborn skill bases, self-learning and self-organization methods and practice of conscious stereotype creation. Some of these possibilities are discussed in this paper.

The authors have developed and successfully use individual therapy based on self-regulation and the central organisation of autonomic functions. They have investigated the formation of stereotypes and dominants in animal experiments and in clinical treatment.

The main conclusion is that today the dominant focus of people’s consciousness is on the social problems of society. The inner sphere has virtually no place in people’s consciousness. It is necessary to reorient the dominant of our consciousness towards solving the problems of the internal sphere of human body in order to keep the balance. In particular, this concerns human interaction with COVID-19.

Key words: complex systems, COVID-19 virus, mathematical model, dynamic stereotype, interaction control, consciousness, systemology.

New ideas, approaches

Kuzmin S. B. 13-27

The paper deals with the philosophical and methodological aspects of the geosystems, or geographical systems, doctrine evolution. Attention is drawn to undesirable tendencies in this evolution, manifested in giving some aspects of the doctrine the appearance of fundamental principles. It shows general scientific dialectic base of the classical variant of the geosystem doctrine as it was developed by its founder academician V. B. Sochava. It emphasizes the inconsistency of particular principles of the doctrine on geosystems as a metascientific paradigm developed later and being developed at present, the relative fundamentality and viability of the classical and widely interpreted, «imperfect» concepts, allowing to operate them in a wide range of aspects of geographical (and not only) knowledge, in particular, using the example of the geosystem doctrine.

Key words: geosystems, methodology, systems theory, synergy.


Lisin V. V. 28-42

This paper proposes a version of the brain mechanism for emergence and formation of perceptual and mental images. The initial event of perceptual image emergence is the result of interaction on thalamic relay neurons between chaotic sensory impulse flow and also impulse flow organized in trains and coming from reticular structures. The subsequent step is the formation of a metastable dynamic association of excited allocortex columns. The role played by the functional association of allocortex columns and the intrafusal muscular reception in the activation of distributed brain systems and in the formation of a perceptual image is considered. This image is seen as a meta-stable state of synergistic processes in neuromuscular structures. The rationale for the imperceivableness of a perceptual image is given. It is assumed that a mental image is based on the perceived effects of Newtonian forces caused by muscle contractions. Properties of perceptual and mental images, their difference and conjugacy, and also the role of a mental image in interaction with conscious images are discussed.

Key words: thalamus, cerebral cortex, reafference, distributed systems, natural motor synergies, perceptual image, mental image.

Tiguntsev S. G. 43-57

The paper еtheorizes the relationship between a redshift in the electromagnetic spectrum of space objects and their gravity and demonstrates it with computational experiments. Redshift, in this case, is a consequence of deceleration of the photons emitted from the surface of objects, which is caused by the gravity of these objects. The photon speed reduction due to the attraction of space gravitating object (GO) is defined as ΔC = C-C ‘, where C’ is a photon speed changed by the time the receiver records it. Then, at photon speed variation between a stationary source and a receiver, the redshift factor is determined as Z = (C-C ‘)/C’. Computational experiments have determined the gravitational redshift of the Earth, the Sun, a neutron star, and a quasar. The graph of the relationship between the redshift and the ratio of sizes to the mass of any space GOs washas been obtained. The findings indicate that the distance to space objects does not depend on the redshift of these objects.

Key words: redshift, computational experiment, space gravitating object, photon, radiation source, receiver.

Experiments, discoveries, practices

Ilyichev V. Yu. 58-64

The three-dimensional representation of the solution for the ordinary differential equations system (ODE) describing convective flow is a Lorentz attractor. This system of equations is the basic deterministic system with which the development of chaos theory began. In order to derive the characteristics of this complex system, the development of a modern accessible and easy to use software product is necessary.

The aim of the work was to create a program for investigating the Lorentz attractor in Python using special command libraries. Particular attention is paid to ways of solving the system of ordinary differential equations by different numerical methods and to the clarity of the presented results.

The code blocks of the developed software are described; it is used to calculate the Lorentz attractor by varying the numerical methods for solving the ordinary differential equations and system parameters. Conclusions are drawn from the results of the calculation.

Key words: chaos theory; convective flow; Lorenz attractor; ordinary differential equation; Python language; data distribution.

Debatable aspects

Tukmakov D. A. 65-71

In the paper, flows of an inhomogeneous medium consisting of gas and dispersed inclusions are simulated. The research objective is aerosols, i.e. solid particles or liquid droplets suspended in gas. The mathematical model of the complex medium flow consists of the dynamics equations for the carrier component, i.e. gas, and the dynamics equations for the dispersed component. The system of equations describing the motion of each mixture component includes continuity equations of mass, momentum and energy. The continuity of momentum for the carrier phase is described by the one-dimensional Navier-Stokes equation. The interphase interaction was defined by relations known from the literature. The mixture dynamics was simulated in one-dimensional approximation. The mathematical model equations were integrated using an explicit finite-difference method. To suppress numerical oscillations, a nonlinear grid function correction scheme was applied to the obtained solution.

Key words: numerical simulation, multiphase media dynamics, explicit finite-difference scheme, interphase interaction.

№4 (10) 2020

Journal «The Complex Systems»

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Basic researches

Kononova N. K., Gorbunov R. V., Gorbunova T. Yu., Velev S. V. 3-30

The paper discusses extreme precipitation recorded at 23 weather stations in the Crimea. Reanalysis data were used. The relationship between precipiThe paper discusses extreme precipitation recorded at 14 weather stations on the western coast of the Black Sea according to reanalysis data and at two weather stations according to observation data. Comparison of observation data with reanalysis data has been carried out. The relationship between extreme precipitation at each station and elementary circulation mechanisms (ECMs) has been analyzed according to typing by B.L. Dzerdzeevsky, V.M. Kurganskaya and Z.M. Vitvitskaya. The ECMs at which precipitation extremes were observed simultaneously at several stations were identified. It was determined at which ECMs on the western coast of the Black Sea extreme precipitation events occur most often and the multi-year changes in the duration of these ECMs were analysed.

Key words: elementary circulation mechanism, extreme precipitation, western coast, Black Sea.

Avchenko O. V., Chudnenko K. V. 31-37

Using the formation of the Solar System as an example, it is shown that the Solar System evolves from chaos caused by a Supernova explosion to an ordered, deterministic structure or from chaos to order. Since there are billions of such structures in our Metagalaxy, it is concluded that ordering processes are prevalent in the Universe, which contradicts the definition of entropy accepted in the literature, according to which increasing entropy occurs in the direction of increasing disorder. This is explained by the fact that in cosmic processes, other forms of energy take an essential part, along with thermal energy, such as gravitational, electromagnetic or chemical energy, to which total entropy there can be assigned, and the last is not a measure of disorder and chaos in a thermodynamic system. In other words, the increase of total entropy in cosmic processes is not connected with the increase of disorder; and on the contrary, the more probable states are more ordered.

Key words: ontology, second law of thermodynamics, total and thermal entropy, evolution of the Universe, formation of the Solar System.

New ideas, approaches

Solovyov V. G. 38-50

The paper considers a new method for finding patterns in a chaotic system and an algorithm implementing it that automatically computes geometric, physical, and other possible interactions based on preferences between objects in a chaotic system in a reasonable computational time, selecting the only possible solution from the whole population. The algorithm has P-class simplicity in solving NP-class problems, bringing machine intelligence as close as possible to human intelligence. Descriptions of original solutions to a number of technical and creative problems are presented.

Key words: Chaos, chaos sieve, combinatorial analysis, Euler graphs, traveling salesman problem, trans-computational problem, NP-class, P versus NP, preference matrix.

Debatable aspects

Markin A. I. 51-60

The outstanding Russian soil scientist N.M. Tulaykov lived and worked at the beginning of the twentieth century, and made a great contribution to the scientific basis of agriculture in southern Russia. Coming from the poorest peasant family, he received an excellent education and worked with other eminent scientists. In 1908-1910 he was sent on a scientific and practical trip to the USA, Germany and Britain. In 1910 he was appointed as a director of Bezenchukskaya agricultural experiment station. From 1915 he headed the Agricultural Chemical Laboratory in Petrograd; from 1918 he was a Chairman of the Agricultural Scientific Committee at the Russian Ministry of Agriculture. From 1920 to the end of his life he headed the field-growing department at Saratov experimental station and was a professor at Saratov Agricultural Institute. He developed and promoted the dry farming system to combat famine (including famine in the Volga region in 1921-1923). He was unjustly repressed and died tentatively in 1937-1938 in the Solovki or in prison in Saratov.

Key words: Tulaykov, agronomist, dry farming system, soil science, drought management, famine control.

№3 (9) 2020

Journal «The Complex Systems»

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Basic researches

Kononova N. K., Gorbunov R. V., Gorbunova T. Yu., Lapchenko V. A., Safonova M. S. 3-27

The paper discusses extreme precipitation recorded at 23 weather stations in the Crimea. Reanalysis data were used. The relationship between precipitation at each station and elementary circulation mechanisms (ECMs) according to B.L. Dzerdzeevsky, V.M. Kurganskaya, and Z.M. Vitvitskaya has been analysed. The ECMs were revealed, at which precipitation extremes were noted simultaneously at several Crimean stations. It has been established at which ECMs in the Crimea, extreme precipitations most often occur and long-term changes in the duration of these ECMs were analysed.

Key words: elementary circulation mechanism, extreme precipitation, Crimea.

Kononova N. K., Gorbunov R. V., Gorbunova T. Yu., Safonova M. S. 28-51

The paper discusses extreme precipitation recorded at 12 meteorological stations on the Eastern Coast of the Black Sea according to reanalysis data and at three stations according to their observations. Comparison of observational data with reanalysis data is carried out. The relationship between extreme precipitations at each station and elementary circulation mechanisms (ECMs) according to typification developed by B.L. Dzerdzeevsky, V.M. Kurganskaya, and Z.M. Vitvitskaya has been analysed. ECMs was revealed, at which recipitation extremes were noted simultaneously at several stations. It has been established at which ECMs on the Eastern coast of the Black Sea extreme precipitation most often occurs, and long-term changes in the duration of these ECMs are analysed.

Key words: elementary circulation mechanism, extreme precipitation, Eastern Coast of the Black Sea.

New ideas, approaches

Smirnov V. L. 52-68

The evolution (unfolding) of a number of characteristics in an abstract system of relations is investigated depending on the change in its maximum scale factor, which allows the dependence of the Sun burning on the eccentricity of the Earth orbit to represent using an application. A structural approach is used, which basically excludes the specifics of specific systems. The analysis tool is a protostructure, while the structure is understood as a set of relations, and the protostructure appears as its supposed primary basis. It consists of two components, endowed with cyclic nature, and specifies the spectrum of positions of the order parameter nk, where k is an ordinal number of a node being an allowed state in the selected cycle k = 1 — 10. All normalizations are performed for the k = 3, which is convenient for the application. Earlier, for the node k = 3, we obtained model positions Δ3 at different stages of evolution, where Δ3 is the splitting of the position n3 as a result of its interaction with other n-positions in the system of nodes k = 1-10. To compare the nodes in the named system, scale factors are proposed, of which the largest is selected. It is also shown that as a result of the interaction between the protostructure components, the system boundary n min is formed, on which, on the one hand, the limiting velocity υmax / υ3, and on the other, the splitting of the position n3, Δ3, depend. The indicated speed is understood as an invariant and corresponds to the speed of light within δ = 1 * 10-5%. This paper analyses M / m3, which is the largest scale factor of the system called the key one; it decreases in the process of evolution and plays the role of a control parameter, on which all other characteristics depend, except for the invariant υmax / υ3. The following values are suggested for M / m3: a) initial value; b) the value at which the splitting Δ3 appears, and c) the relationships of the above characteristics. Being based on this, and taking into account the backstory, a discrete scenario of the system unfolding from the initial value M / m3 to the selected final one is built. A high degree of consistency of all characteristics of the system has been demonstrated. It is shown that the system boundary nmin splits and, according to the model, forms the boundaries of the existence of the satellite characteristics near the n3 position. In the appendix, the system under study is interpreted as a pair of the Sun (nmin) – the Earth (n3) in the Solar system ecliptic plane, where n is the relative angular momentum, M / m3 is the mass of the Sun, and the Moon plays the role of a satellite.

Key words: self-organization, evolution, order parameter, inner Sun, eccentricity of the Earth orbit, speed of light.

Debatable aspects

Torvich V. V. 69-85

The objective of this work is to identify the features of the development of a complex system of mankind. The opportunities for the actions of people and humanity are included in the model of the system. Social structures as well as the impact of humanity on the environment are excluded from the model. This article studies the stability of the model depending on the uncertainty of dates. The impact of the driving force on some properties of humankind’s model is considered. We examined the lack of direct proportionality between the driving force and the increase in the number of resource groups. We also found a prolonged temporary slowdown in the growth of the number of resource groups. The index of great creativity of mankind is introduced and calculated. The index dynamics indicated that a period of global slowdown in mankind’s creativity happened between 2000 BC and 1500 AD. The relationship between the history of creativity and the history of events of mankind was examined. We found that the move of the great creative activity of mankind from Asia to Europe occurred in the first millennium BC. The model also provided an answer to the question if the development of mankind is a directional and controllable process. It has been established that the development of mankind is aimed at expanding the range of opportunities for human actions. This trend has existed since 42000 BC. This article has an interdisciplinary nature. It addresses issues related to complex systems and driving force, as well as about creativity and humankind’s history.

Key words: system, complex systems, humanity, history, invariant, history of mankind, creativity, model, driving force.

№2 (8) 2020

Journal «The Complex Systems»

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Basic researches

Kholoptsev A. V., Podporin S. A., Kononova N. K. 3-16

Abstract. The paper considers the features of the mutual influence caused by the ice cover of the Arctic waters and the meridional components of the atmospheric circulation in the Northern Hemisphere of Earth, which are manifested in the modern period. The identification of such features is an urgent problem of climatology, meteorology, oceanography, as well as the maritime transport industry.
The subject of this research is the statistical relationship between interannual changes in a number of characteristics of the Arctic ice cover and components of the atmospheric circulation. The features of the impact of external factors on them are also investigated.
The paper checks the adequacy of the hypothesis put forward that the significant factors of the interannual variability of the characteristics belonging to Arctic Air Outbreak that occur in the summer season in a number of regions of the Arctic include variations in the state of their ice cover caused by the combined effect of global warming and the decline of the average level of solar activity taking place in the current period.
To achieve this goal, there are considered the results of a retrospective analysis of changes in 1993–2019 concerning average daily values of the average thickness of the ice cover, its concentration, average temperature and salinity of the surface layer of the Arctic water areas, as well as air temperatures and meridional components of wind speed in various layers of the troposphere. The specified information has been obtained from the GLORYS, V12, NCEP / NCAR, and ERA — Interim electronic databases. The method of correlation analysis and statistical goodness-of-fit tests were used to assess the adequacy of the hypothesis under consideration.
Using the example of the Arctic waters located in the European, Siberian, Far Eastern and Pacific sectors of the Northern Hemisphere, the features of the mutual influence of changes in the state of their ice cover and meridional components of the atmospheric circulation in the summer season are revealed. The results obtained make it possible to confirm the adequacy of the concept on the significance of the impact on the ice cover of the Arctic waters of the southern cyclones entering high latitudes. The existence of a significant influence of the state of their ice cover on the characteristics of arctic air intrusions formed in the same sectors was also established.
It is shown that in the modern period, and in the coming decades of the twenty-first century changes in the state of the ice cover in the Arctic will be determined by competing factors of global warming and cooling factors caused by a decrease in the average level of solar activity. The latter will entail a decrease in the average intensity of insolation in the Arctic waters. The result of the confrontation of these factors is currently unpredictable, since it depends on the average level to which solar activity will decrease at the next minimum of the Suess cycle, as well as on the concentrations of greenhouse gases in the Earth’s atmosphere reached by that time. It is not ruled out that ice conditions in the Northern Sea Route will become more difficult in the summer-autumn navigation period, which confirms the relevance and timeliness of the implementation of the Russian Icebreaker Fleet Development Program.

Key words: arctic, ice cover, outbreaks, Arctic air, southern cyclones, statistical relationships, solar activity, reanalysis.

Startsev V. V. 17-24

Abstract. The structure of a virus and its interaction with cells is considered from the standpoint of systems theory for the first time. The substantiation of attributing the virus to a complex system and a living organism is given. The natural process of interaction between complex systems that are higher in the hierarchy than a virus is carried out through the exchange of information embedded in their code. The general mechanism of interaction between living complex systems is predicted by exchanging the systems that are on a lower hierarchy level. The regularity of changes not only in organisms and cells, but also in viruses during their interactions and mutations is substantiated on the basis of the laws of systems theory.

Key words: COVID-19, virus, information exchange, interaction of systems, systems theory, systemology.

New ideas, approaches

Smirnov V. L. 25-41

Abstract. One of the aspects concerning the evolution (unfolding) of an abstract system of relations is investigated; this makes it possible to reveal its characteristic limiting relative speed and show that it differs little from the speed of light in the application. A structural approach is used, which basically excludes the specifics of specific systems. The analysis tools are the previously proposed protostructure and the order parameter n based on it. The structure is interpreted as a network consisting of nodes being allowed states and their links, which are rules responsible for stability. The structure is understood as a set of relationships, and the protostructure acts as its supposed principium endowed with a cyclic nature and specifying the spectrum of positions for the order parameter n k, where k = 1, 2, 3… 10 is the ordinal number of a node in the cycle 1:10. This mentioned cycle contains, in particular, the nodes n 2 and n 3, while most of the normalizations are performed using k = 3, which is convenient for application. The links between the previously revealed initial boundary of the system of relationships n min and the splitting Δ 3 for the node n 3 are considered; the splitting is also established on the basis of model considerations and corresponds to observations. Initially, the node n 2 is rigidly connected to the boundary n min. In this paper, we analyse the appearance and evolution of the link between the boundary n min and the node n 3 and the downplaying of the initial link with n 2. A search procedure n min is considered depending on the selection of Δ 3,. The positions n min and n 3 differ by about 4 orders of magnitude and are treated as a single system. The analysis is based on offsets of nodes relative to the original position, which allows us to ignore the difference in orders. The evolution process is unfolded as a scenario, or a set of successive steps or structural events, as a result of which a high degree of compatibility of system nodes is realized.
In the appendix, the system under study is interpreted as a pair of Sun (n min) — Earth (Δ3) in the ecliptic plane of the Solar system. The role of n k is played by the relative angular momentum; position n min sets the boundary of the inner Sun, positions n2 and n3 are interpreted as characteristics of Venus and Earth. The maximum model speed in the system does not differ from the measured speed of light within the range of 1*10-5%.

Key words: self-organization, order parameter, inner Sun, speed of light, eccentricity of Earth orbit.

Debatable aspects

Torvich V. V. 42-59

Abstract. The objective of this work is to clarify the reasons for the uneven dynamics of the development of the human system. The named dynamics changes in different periods of human history. Opportunities for human’ activities are included in our system model. This model of the human system consists of elements that have not changed since its inception. This means that the elements of the system are invariants. These elements represent opportunities for human action. Social structures as well as the impact of humanity on the environment are excluded from the system model.
In this article, a hypothesis is put forward about a new driving force of mankind’s development. The previously known driving forces are global climate change and the driving forces of biological evolution. We show the correlation between the graph of the new driving force and the curve of the growing number of invariants in our model. The growth of the driving force is very uneven. The emergence of new invariants is the response of the system to the pressure of the driving force. This correlation explains the reason for the uneven dynamics of the development of mankind’s system. This article is interdisciplinary in nature. It examines issues related to complex systems, geological eras, global climate, mankind’s history.

Key words: system, complex systems, mankind, history, invariant, humankind, history of mankind.

№1 (7) 2020

Journal «The Complex Systems»

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Basic researches

Smulsky J. J. 3-42

Abstract. There are the main points of the derivation of the differential equations of the Earth’s rotational motion. The periods of oscillation of the Earth’s axis are grounded by the angular momentum theorem. The constants of the equations, the initial conditions, and the theory of their computations are discussed. The results of integrating the equations over time intervals from 0.1 year to 1 million years are considered. The theory of solutions transformation to the mobile plane of the Earth’s orbit is considered for millions of years, and the solution results are presented at different time intervals from 100 years to 20 million years. The evolution of the Earth’s axis is analyzed. It is established that the Earth’s axis precesses with respect to a fixed direction in space, which differs from the direction of the precession of planetary orbits. Physical explanations of the received oscillations of the Earth’s axis from 14.68° to 32.68° are given. The oscillations of the Earth’s rotation period are shown. Evidence of the reliability of the solutions obtained is presented. The work is of interest to a wide range of researchers in the fields of astronomy, paleoclimate and geophysics.
Key words: differential equations, Earth rotation, precession, oscillations, evolution, periods, causes, Moon, Sun, planets.

New ideas, approaches

Smirnov V. L. 43-60

Abstract. The self-organizing system’s approaching evolutionary maturity is considered, which allows us to explain the characteristics of their orbits for the four planets of the solar system. The system does not possess any specifics of natural objects and is treated as part of a structure that has boundaries. The structure, in its turn, is represented as a set of relations on the numerical axis and is understood as a network of nodes (the allowed states) and relations between them. The system is formed on the basis of the deployment of a proto-structure, a two-component cyclically organized system of relations, which is treated as primary and is intended for a phased study of the evolution of natural systems. Evolution is understood as a deployment from stage to stage, taking into account the background. The proto-structure defines the spectrum of allowed states for n — the order parameter of the system, which subordinates two relative characteristics. As a result of the interaction, the elements of the specified spectrum are split into components and specialize.

Here the feed data are the insights resulting from the analysis of the previous evolution stage, where the splitting of ten n-nodes within one isolated proto-structure cycle is considered. We study four n-nodes, which, as a result of detailing, are represented using approximately 50 positions interacting on the numerical axis. These positions are placed at three levels of the hierarchy: the level of positions n, as well as their splits — the level of shifts n relative to the initial positions — the level of small changes. Inter-level connections and the level of shifts are considered in detail, the basis of which are the invariants formed at the previous stage of evolution. An analysis of structural scenarios indicates the key role of shifts at the last stage of evolution.

When applied, each element of the spectrum n is interpreted as the relative moment of momentum in the solar system, when it comes to circular motion. Otherwise, any element of the spectrum is split into components, each of them responsible for the distance it is in charge of. The evolutionary maturity of planetary distances and periods of revolution for Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune is discussed. The stability criterion of the final positions n is considered.

On average, the model positions of perihelion, aphelion, major and minor semi-axes correspond to the observed distances within 5*10-5%. For the first time from structural positions, it is shown why the orbits of the planets differ so little from circular ones. Model circulation periods on average correspond to those observed within 5*10-2%.

Key words: evolution, structure, evolution maturity, order parameter, planet orbits, planet orbital periods.

Debatable aspects
Torvich V. V. 61-72

Abstract. For an in-depth understanding of the processes underlying the development of mankind as a whole, an approach is proposed in which the opportunities for actions of people and humanity are included in the consideration. The social structures, as well as the impact of mankind on the environment, are excluded from consideration. In the works known to me, this approach is practically absent. The purpose of this study is to develop criteria for the search for components or groups of components of such a system and identify their list. The other purpose is to consider the dynamics of development over time of a system consisting of these groups of components. The search criteria for components or groups of components that may constitute such a system are described. The list of groups of components is given, which, in particular, includes “Man-made materials”, “Mass transport”, etc. The totality of groups of components determines the range of opportunities for the actions of people and humanity as a whole. An analysis was made of the change in time of the proposed set of groups of components. It has been established that the range of these opportunities expands over time and that this expansion is realized with acceleration.

During the search per proposed criteria information was used from various areas of knowledge. Those areas are associated with the development of technologies, means of communication, social activity, globalization, and cognitive abilities.

Key words: complex systems, humankind, history of mankind, opportunities for human actions, development.

№1 (6) 2019

Journal «The Complex Systems»

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Basic researches

Magnitskii N. A. 3-17

Abstract. In the work, based on the equations of the compressible oscillating ether, derived from the laws of classical mechanics [2, 4-5], ether mathematical models of the nuclei of atoms of chemical elements were constructed. It is shown that the nucleus of any atom is a superposition of perturbation waves of ether density in several protons and several neutrons, having a common center and propagating around a common axis in one direction or in opposite directions, that is, having unidirectional or opposite spins. Formulas for the values of internal energies, masses, magnetic moments, and binding energies of atomic nuclei are derived, with an accuracy of fractions of a percent coinciding with their experimental values. Formulas for calculating the radii of atomic nuclei are obtained. Answers are given to many topical questions about the structure of atomic nuclei that modern atomic physics is not capable of answering, for example: why there are no nuclei consisting only of protons or only of neutrons; what is the nature of the nuclear forces holding together protons and neutrons in the nucleus; why the sizes of atomic nuclei practically do not depend on the atomic number of the chemical element; why the Coulomb barrier of the nucleus selectively works; why the fragments of the decomposition of transuranium elements into two nuclides are asymmetric; why there is no stable nucleus; what is the reason for the different percentage in nature of different isotopes of the same chemical element?
Key words: compressible oscillating ether, proton, electron, neutron, nuclides, atomic nuclei.

Ivanov O. P. 18-45

Abstract. The article presents a brief history of the formation of representations in the category of «complexity». Modern interpretations of the term in various Sciences are shown. The system approach to understanding complexity is most fully stated.
Key words: complexity, nonlinearity, resonance, Kepler, systems, adaptability.

Startsev V. V. 46-51

Abstract. Relations between the object and the subject, the objective reality in quantum mechanics and the theory of systems are investigated. Only as a result of observation does a quantum object become either a particle or a wave. Without the role of an observer, an object can simultaneously be in many states, while not being in any of them. In essence, wave-particle duality directly contradicts the notion of the existence of «objective reality» independent of the observer. Quantum mechanics postulates the inseparability of the subject, object and their interaction, and the theory of systems determines their relationship. Material reality, neither objective nor subjective, exists. Quantum objects materialize their states depending on the conditions of observation and at the request of the observer. Objective, independent of us, the world does not exist. To one degree or another, we influence all the objects of this world, and the world affects us. Each of the interacting elements of the system contributes to the formation of the reality of the element of the system and the entire system as a whole. The more elements interact with a large number of system elements, the more «real» it is. This conclusion, however paradoxical, not only does not contradict, but also follows both from the laws of quantum mechanics and from the laws of systemology.
Key words: objective reality, systemology, quantum mechanics.

New ideas, approaches

Smirnov V. L. 52-73

Abstract. The paper considers the process when a self-organized system is reaching its evolutionary maturity. The results obtained can be applied to explain orbital characteristics for five planets of the solar system. The system does not possess specifics of natural objects and is regarded as part of a structure that has borders. In its turn, the structure is understood as a network consisting of nodes (the allowed states) and connections between them. The system is formed as a deployment of a proto-structure, being a two-component cyclically organized system of relations, which is interpreted as the primary structure intended for a step-by-step study of evolution. Evolution is understood as a history-based stage-by-stage deployment. The proto-structure defines the range of the allowed states for n, the order parameter of the system, which subordinates two relative characteristics. As a result of the interaction, the elements of the specified spectrum are split into components and specialize. In this work, the initial data are derived from the analysis of the previous stage of evolution, where the splitting of ten n-nodes within one isolated cycle of the proto-structure is considered. Here we examine five n-nodes; in details, they are presented using approximately fifty interacting positions. These positions are located on three hierarchy levels: the level of positions n, as well as their splittings — the level of shifts n relative to the initial positions — the level of splitting shifts. The inter-level relations and the level of shifts are considered in detail, the basis of which is the invariants formed at the previous stage of evolution.

For application purposes, in the context of circular motion, each element of the spectrum n is interpreted as a relative angular momentum in the solar system. Otherwise, the element of the spectrum is split into components, and each of them is responsible for the subordinate distance or for the period of revolution. The evolutionary maturity of planetary distances and orbital periods for Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars and Pluto is discussed. The stability criterion for the final positions n is considered. On average, model positions of perihelia, aphelia, major and minor semi-axes correspond to observational data within 8*10-4%. For the first time from a structural point of view, it is shown why the orbits of the planets differ so little from circular ones. Model periods of planetary revolution do not differ on average from those observed within 1.3*10-2%.
Key words: evolution, structure, evolutionary maturity, order parameter, planetary orbits, planet periods.

Experiments, discoveries, practice

Starostin I. E., Khalyutin S. P., Bykov V. I. 74-87

Abstract. To simulate processes of various physical and chemical nature (which is important for solving various practical problems associated with systems characterized by the occurrence of physicochemical processes in them), the authors previously developed in the framework of modern non-equilibrium thermodynamics potential The stream method of mathematical modeling of these processes is a unified approach to the description and modeling of processes of various physical and chemical nature. The authors also considered obtaining a mathematical model of a physical and chemical system from the equations of the potential-flow method that describes the processes in this system (this model is a relationship between the output characteristics of the physicochemical system under consideration that have practical meaning). This approach is Monte Carlo methods, according to which the factors of the flow of physicochemical processes are randomly set, the corresponding dynamics of these processes are determined from the equations of the potential-flow method, then the model of the system under consideration is approximated on these dynamics. Hence, to reduce the amount of computation, it is necessary to simplify this system of equations piecewise. This article is devoted to the simplification of potential-flow equations.
Key words: potential-flow method, dynamics of physical and chemical processes, model building, simplification of equations.

№1 (5) 2018

Journal «The Complex Systems»

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Experiments, discoveries and practices

Kozoderov V. V., Dmitriev E. V. 3-12

Abstract. Remote sensing systems might be considered as an alternative to groundbased forest inventory dealing with laborious works on test sites. Pre-requisites of the newly defined techniques are presented to recognize remote sensing images and to estimate parameters relating to the forest canopy of different species and age on the test area, where common-used ground-based map of forest inventory is available. The test site is described of the area in Tver region of Russia based on domestic hyper-spectral imagery processing using spectral and texture features of the forest objects extracted from the images. The recognition procedures are presented of the airborne imagery processing with the errors of the relevant validation together with such parameters of the forest canopy as the projective cover and biomass amount retrieved by the related techniques for different types of forests. The accuracy category is typical within 5-15% for the trial plots in the inventory maps. The accuracy of our pattern recognition techniques for hyper-spectral imagery processing is not worse of this level. This opens up prospects for the newly defined applications of remote sensing imagery processing.
Key words: forest inventory, ground-based maps, remote sensing data processing, passive and active systems.

Kozoderov V. V., Dmitriev E. V., Kuleshov A. A. 13-29

Abstract. Enhancing our supervised classification procedures of remote sensing imagery processing, we compare the relevant results of airborne hyperspectral and satellite multispectral images given by WorldView-2 for the same test area. The string and rod problems are considered to solve the regularization procedure of the ill-posed inverse problem. The technique of error correcting output codes (ECOC) is used to test different designs of the related classifier by employing the listed airborne and spaceborne data. As a result, confusion matrices are shown of the main objects classification using these hyperspectral and multispectral remote sensing systems. Comparisons are made with typical ground-based forest inventory map of the test area. We can conclude similar errors of the forest canopy recognition while separating the pixels in accordance with their three categories of the Sun illumination (completely shaded; half shaded; sunlit tops) for each class of the forest objects on the images under processing. This is a characteristic feature of processing images of high spectral and spatial resolution.
Key words: remote sensing; hyperspectral images; pattern recognition; forest inventory.

Kozoderov V. V., Dmitriev E. V., Melnik P. G., Donskoi S. A. 30-43

Abstract. Active and passive systems of optical remote sensing are considered as an alternative to the common-used ground-based forest inventory. The relevant laborious works of the forest inventory are outlined on the probe areas within Russian forest ranger stations. Imaging spectrometers with hundreds of spectral channels in visible and near infrared region are designed to enhance the information content of the hyperspectral imagery processing. Comparisons are given of these traditional techniques of forest inventory and the newly defined approaches of data processing for a selected test area. These approaches include pattern recognition methods of forest classification of different species and ages as well as the retrieval of such parameters of forests as the Net Primary Productivity (NPP) and similar other information products. The NPP products can be used for parameterization of forested environments in climate models.
Key words: active and passive remote sensing systems, forest inventory, biological productivity retrival.

Debatable aspects

Ivanov N. V. 44-54

Abstract. Complexity of biological system is discussed. These systems display complexity at different levels of organization: from atomic to evolution of species. Some consequences of this complexity are examined.
Key words: complexity, Biological system, spatial hierarchy, evolution of species.

№1 (4) 2017

Journal «The Complex Systems»

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Basic researches

Bogolepova I. N., Malofeeva L. I., Agapov P. A. 3-12

Annotation. Series of the 20 μm total frontal slices, stained by the Nissl method with cresyl violet, were used to study the cytoarchitecture of the cortical speech-motor area 44 of the gifted world-famous investigator’s and corresponding areas of the senile male subjects’ brains (10 hemispheres). Modern morphometric methods were used to investigate following: thickness of the cortex in area 44, square of the profile pyramid neurons field in the association layer III, density of the cells and glia in it, and also a neuronal content of this layer was identified.
Investigators came to a conclusion that the area 44 of the speech-motor area of the talented investigator and inventor’s brain has a statistically more significantly thickened cortex in the area 44, bigger pyramid neurons in the cytoarchitecture layer III, bigger proportion of the large neurons and bigger density of the neurons and glia.
Key words: brain, talented, gifted, investigator, men, cytoarchitecture, cortex, area 44, speech-motor area, density, neuron, glia.

New ideas, approaches

Kovalev V. A. 13-20

Abstract. Accelerated scenarios (super exponential, with a decrease of temporary scale) the evolution of the system investigated on the basis of the decision of nonlinear differential equation with source ~ uβ1 and dissipation ~ uβ2. Strong nonlinearity causes source β1>1 singular blow-up regime at zero background. In the case of an alternative two-stage scenario with rapid evolution occurs at nonzero background as a result of the instability of the stationary state caused decrease of dissipation. Effective index of differential rate increases due to the source until dissipation β1+|β1|. Transition to follow the slow evolution in terms of reduced dissipation occurs without singularity at minimum time scale. A two − step scenario allows to explain the behavior of natural, technological and social systems.
Keywords: insolation, regression model, deviation, correlation, multidecade oscillation, commensurability, orbital resonance.

Smirnov V. L. 21-36

Abstract. The paper suggests a methodology for calculating transitional forms of complex systems in the course of their evolution (deployment) without making any assumptions about specifics of the mentioned systems. Discrete spectra and causes of such changes are analyzed quantitatively for such systems. The study focuses on the structure, i.e. a set of relations on the number scale. The trinitarian method is used, in particular, the analysis is based on proportions: the arithmetic one – the geometric one – the golden section. The key idea is that identical matches are identified for various variants of the order and corresponding types of symmetry. The increase in their number contributes to the survival of structural configurations and emergence of the new types of order. The proposed rules for the selection of allowed states enable to form the proto-structure, i.e. the primary set of relationships. Its evolution can be traced step-by-step from Stage 0 up to the emergence of cycles — axis intervals where relationships are systematically repeated. The proto-structure comprises two components, has a high degree of symmetry and includes fragments as the most common numerical invariants: 1+α, 2, 2+α, 5 и 10, where α-1= 1+α= (1+√5)/2=1.6180… is the golden section. The proto-structure is considered for the first time, presumably it describes the basic space-time properties and serves as a material for further evolution. It is shown that the methodology enables to analyze the formation of the allowed positions of the order parameter, for example, in the Solar system. From the physics perspective, the model can be regarded as an attempt to enter the third level of the hierarchy proposed E.Wigner: events — laws — principles of symmetry.
Keywords: structure, complex systems, evolution, self-organization, symmetry, cycle, golden section.

Debatable aspects

Ryzhenkov A. V., Topchiy M. A. 37-46

Abstract. Additive manufacture (additive technologies, 3D printing, AM, AT) – Production of complex shapes based on three-dimensional computer models using layering material. From the standpoint of the use of additive chemistry techniques can be compared using condensation when objects or a «bottom up», and use «technologies subtracting» associated with the removal of material – with dispersion, with the «top down». The development of additive manufacturing is made possible through to the success and progress of the following related fields – chemistry and physics of polymers, metals and metallurgy, colloid chemistry, nanotechnology, computer modeling and laser technology. Due to the success of colloid chemistry, nanotechnology, metallurgy and polymer science made possible the creation of materials that are used for manufacturing products for additive manufacturing now. Powders of metals, polymers occupy the most important, fundamental place in the additive manufacturing.
The origins of additive technologies taking almost 150 years ago in areas such as topography (1890) and photosculpture (1860).
In 1951, Munz proposed a method consistent layering and selective exposure of the material on the basis of photopolymer with its subsequent hardening to form the final product. The proposed method was the basis for stereolithography — basic and best developed method of additive manufacturing today.
In 1968, Swainson proposed a method of two-beam stereolithography plastic models. 1986 – begins to use stereolithography industrial scale.
In the 1990s began the use of additive technologies for the production of metals. The jump in growth of additive technologies come in 2009 when the expired patent for a method of manufacturing the product by layered deposition of polymer filaments. In 2014 the first place in the number of installations for the production of the additive are the United States.
Keywords: additive technology, 3D printing, history of chemistry, stereolithography, polymer science, colloid chemistry, solid state chemistry, two-photon polymerization, a three-dimensional scanner, nanotechnology.

№1 (3) 2016

Journal «The Complex Systems»

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Basic researches

Yaroslavtsev N. A., Safyanov G. A., Petrov V. A. 3-26


On the basis of repeated bathymetric surveys, estuarine morphodynamics system of Mzymta and Psou Rivers canyons and two canyons of the longshore supply studied.
It is shown that the rate of accumulation of sediments in the canyon tributaries depend screens on the distance of the vertex from the mouths of rivers and coasts. The largest number of material enters the tributaries located near the mouths of rivers and the upper reaches of the canyons, close to shore. The accumulation of sediment in tributaries leads to stall the nomination edge depths of the sea, an increase in the slope of the edge of the sea accumulating material, and when it reaches its critical inclination, displacement down the thalweg to lower levels. After this phase of the cycle begins again sedimentation faith-hovyah canyons.
The intensity of the accumulation of sediments in estuarine tributaries canyons in the set by god depends on their location relative to the direction of flow of sediment. During longshore movement of coarse sediment fractions by removing faith-hovev canyons from the coast of more than 100 m fall in limited quantities.
Submarine canyons longshore supply New and Constantine, the headwaters of which are closed to the foot of the beaches, and blocking movement of sediment from the mouth of the river. Mzymta fencing port breakwaters resulted in a sharp rise of the deficit of sediment and reduce the width of the beaches on the coast from the port area to the Psou mouth.
Keywords: accumulation, brow stall depths, submarine canyon tributaries, erosion, sediment load, the thalweg, the mouth of the river.

Belinsky A. V. 27-30

Abstract. The paper considered the experiments with single quantum particles which lead to the supposition that quantum processes occur beyond the macroscopic space-time.
Keywords: interpretation of quantum theory, the nature of space-time, single-photon interference, physical interactions.

New ideas, approaches

Mavlyudov B. R., Kononova N. K., Zakharov V.G. 31-45

Abstract. Data on the rapid advances of sea ice near the coasts of Spitsbergen in the summer seasons of 2004 and 2011 and circulation mechanisms underlying these phenomena are described in papers. Similar events were observed in Antarctica in King George Island (South Shetland Islands) in April 2012.
The analysis of the chronology of these events was held on the basis of data on the conjugation of atmospheric circulation of Northern and Southern Hemispheres and the calendar of consistent change of elementary circulation mechanisms (ECM) from 1899 to 2012. This made it possible to reveal the dynamics of ice processes occurring in the Arctic at the same time, identify areas of their most significant manifestations and to assess the scales of sea ice arrays changes.
Keywords: Antarctic, Arctic, advances, sea ice, atmospheric circulation, the elementary circulation mechanism (ECM), conjugation.

Gromyko V. I., Kazaryan V. P., Vasilyev N. S., Simakin A. G., Anosov S. S. 46-61

Abstract. Nowadays the integration of science and education takes place. System informational culture impels everyone to work with trans-discipline rational scientific meanings. Educational system is challenged so as consciousness development problem is set. It can be solved only by universal tutoring implementation. So it is required to teach any student how to self construct his second rational consciousness. Our approach is based on glottogonia ideas which are of paramount importance. Intellect self organization must be based on synthetic axiomatic method of cognition. Rational objectivation should become main student‘s subjectivation means. Affair of intellect self organization needs quick adaptive help. Continuous universal education should replace professional one. Only supercomputer intellectual tutoring systems are able to cope with the task. Internet and personal ontological knowledge bases using will help to access trans-discipline libraries and find conceptual courses adequate to student‘s possibilities. Second consciousness is born by means of universal notions identification specialized in any studied discipline. By author‘s opinion the aim of education consists of student‘s mind equipment with categorial language to enable him to understand system meanings and work with them. On the language one can strictly define and investigate general notions clearly described by universal commutative diagrams. As a criterion of subject‘s successful entering system informational culture serves his understanding naturalness and obviousness of the utmost mathematical abstractions.
Keywords: system informational culture, universal education, synthetic axiom method, categorial language, cognogenes, consciousness, self organization, objectivation, subjectivation, meaning discovery, third world, personality, trans-discipline educational space, intellectual tutoring system, ontological knowledge base.

Experiments, opening, practice

Surikov V. V., Kolotusha A. V. 62-75

Abstract. The analysis of attempts of predictions in the modern economic science leads to the conclusion that the economic mathematical models often give forecasts, to put it mildly, untrue. In the present article, the authors have tried to look deeper into the situation and try to answer a number of fundamental, in their opinion, issues. In particular, the article presents a review of some mathematical and cyclical economic models, explores why the cyclic models are sometimes underestimated among the variety of types of economic mathematical models. Also there is given an attempt to analyze the relationship between cyclical economic models on the example of the connection between the medium-term (7-11 years) cycles of Juglar and long-term (40-60 years) Kondratieff cycles.
Keywords: mathematical models, economic models, forecasting, global processes.

Nikitin A. I., Nikitina T. F., Velichko A. M. 76-88

Abstract. At the end of January 2013 on Northern Cyprus during a thunderstorm a picture of four unusual channels of atmospheric discharge was captured. In contrast to bead lightning, the channels of this discharge have a clear periodic structure, less brightness and yellow-green colour. They look as lines, containing one, three and five parallel strokes. It was supposed that the unusual atmospheric discharge may be created in a plasma waveguide of the cooling channel of linear lightning, inside which a standing electromagnetic wave was formed.
Keywords: channel of linear lightning, bead lightning, plasma waveguide, standing waves.

№1 (2) 2015

Journal «The Complex Systems»

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Basic researches

Surikov V. V. 3-16

Abstract. The article examines the most pressing global issues, seems quite real threat to the survival of civilization. It is noted that all the factual sources of information — the media (the media), popular science magazines and books, and even more so, research papers and books, differing in the degree of authenticity and depth, are united in one thing: the worsening situation all the more hope for rapid problem solving smaller. Natural science approach relies on its main and most objective criterion of truth — the experiment. The article notes that the root of the emergence and development of global issues related to the inability of the human brain to predict the behavior of complex nonlinear systems. Fortunately, mathematical models and physical laws allow a person to understand the essence of contemporary issues and fairly reasonably predict our near future if the present trend of development. And made basic recommendations for overcoming the crisis.
Keywords: complex system, thermodynamics, entropy, globalization, the blow-up regimes, self-organization, synergetics, world-system, the biosphere.

New ideas, approaches

Boldyreva L. B. 17-32

Abstract. The aim of the paper is to show that there is a physical process which could underlie the wave–particle duality. It is shown that the wave properties of a quantum entity are due to precession of spin of pair of virtual particles created by the quantum entity in the physical vacuum. Analogies were revealed between the spin precession frequency of pair of virtual particles and the wave function frequency, between the size of the electric dipole produced by a pair of virtual particles and the wave function wavelength, and also between the precession angle of spin of pair of virtual particles and the wave function phase. It is shown that quantum correlations of quantum entities may be caused by spin correlations (by spin supercurrents) between virtual particles created by quantum entities in the physical vacuum.
Keywords: wave–particle duality, matter waves, quantum electric dipole moment, wave function frequency, wave function wavelength, virtual particles quantum correlations, spin supercurrent.

Zakharov V. G. 33-44

Abstract. A long-term series of the evolution of glaciers in Greenland, Iceland, Spitsbergen and Novaya Zemlya in 1890-1980 were continued on glaciological data 1980-2000’s. It is shown that during the XX-th century in the fluctuations of glaciers Atlantic Arctic (just like in Antarctic) periodicity was manifested equal on the average of 18.6 years variability of luni-solar tidal forces. The most significant retreat of glaciers in the Arctic occurred during zonal circulation epoch of the Northern Hemisphere (1916-1956). In the 1980s — 1990s years of the meridional southern epoch of atmospheric circulation the surges of Greenland, Iceland and Spitsbergen glaciers were resumed, and on Novaya Zemlya and Zemlya Frantsa — Iosifa the slowdown in the rate of reduction of glaciations was observed. These events occurred against the background of a sharp increase in cyclonic activity in the North Atlantic and the Arctic basin during the winter and summer seasons.
Keywords: glacier, edge fluctuation, surge, retreat, luni-solar tide, circulation epoch.

Experiments, opening, practice

Zakharov V. G., Kononova N.K. 45-57

Abstract. New data on the relationship of the dynamics of the atmospheric circulation in the Northern Hemisphere and fields of ice drift in the Arctic basin were obtained by means hydro-climatic parameters of 2004, 2007 and 2011. In results of analysis installed role of the elementary circulation mechanism 13s (ECМ 13s) in formation of ice fields and promotion them to the fjords of Spitsbergen (summer 2004 and 2011). Shows the consistency of periods of actions ECМ 13s and cyclonic circulation of drift ice in the Arctic basin in different years. It was also revealed that during of action of ECМ 12a in the Arctic basin observed the anticyclonic circulation of ice drift (summer 2007). At this time Spitsbergen was in the zone of warm anticyclonic weather. According to the materials of researches maps of atmospheric circulation and fields drift ice in the Arctic basin and maps with the same content for the Northern Hemisphere were prepared.
Keywords: cyclone, anticyclone, atmosphere circulation, elementary circulation mechanism (ECМ), drift ice.

Fedorov. V. M., Kononova N. K., Gorbunov R. V., Gorbunova T. Yu. 58-71

Abstract. We analyzed the connection of action time of the zonal and meridional circulation (and individual groups of circulation in B. L. Dzerdzeevskiy typification) with solar radiation hitting the surface of earth ellipsoid in absence of atmosphere. We identified a tendency of increasing the action time of meridional circulation type (including meridional southern groups) and decreasing the action time of zonal circulation type (including disturbance of zonal circulation groups) in the atmosphere of Northern hemisphere in period from 1850 to 2050. It is assumed to develop it in the interval from 2014 to 2050.
Keywords: solar radiation, circulation processes in atmosphere, typification, circulation groups, zonal and meridional circulations.

Debatable aspects

Magnitskii N. A. 72-91

Abstract. Over the past five years the company «New Inflow» conducted theoretical and experimental studies aimed at promoting a new concept of creating energy devices. At the request of the company the author created a logically consistent mathematical theory of physical vacuum (ether), which allows to understand the mechanisms of appearance of matter and its transformation into energy. Separate sections of the theory were published in various scientific journals of the world. In the present paper, the mathematical models of electron, proton and neutron are presented in the form of wave solutions of the nonlinear system of ether equations derived from the laws of classical mechanics. The definitions and formulas for calculating of their charge, energy, mass and magnetic moments are given. Numerical values of the magnetic moments are almost exactly the same as the experimental so-called «anomalous» values. Representations of the Planck constant and the fine structure constant through the parameters of the ether are obtained. The value of the fine structure constant calculated according to the formulas of the ether theory is also almost exactly the same as its experimental value. The law of universality of elementary particle charges, the absence of the charge of neutron, the lack of mass, charge and magnetic moment of neutrino, the mechanism of birth of particles and antiparticles from the photon of the twice energy and the mechanism of particles annihilation are theoretically grounded and validated by formulas of the ether theory.
Keywords: ether, electron, proton, neutron, charge, energy, mass, magnetic moment, the fine structure constant, Planck constant.

№1 (1) 2014

Journal «The Complex Systems»